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Sliding mode methods have been historically studied because of their strong robustness properties with regard to a certain class of uncertainty, achieved by employing nonlinear control/injection signals to force the system trajectories to attain in finite time a motion along a surface in the state-space. This paper will consider how these ideas can be exploited for fault detection (specifically fault signal estimation) and subsequently fault tolerant control. ; It will also describe applications of these ideas to aerospace systems, including piloted flight simulator results associated with the GARTEUR AG16 Action Group on Fault Tolerant Control. The results demonstrate a successful real-time implementation of the proposed fault tolerant control scheme on a motion flight simulator configured to represent the post-failure EL-AL aircraft.