This paper demonstrates the independence of literature didactics and what it is based on as a branch which has just been developing as a seperate science. A connection is shown between literature didactics and other sciences such as the theory of literature, psychology, praxiology, general didactics and aesthetics ; The author points out the inaccurate opinion according to which the study of the theory of literature methodology is indentified with the study of literature didactics methodology. The connection between didactic theory and school practice is discussed in this paper. Literature didactics is an efficient teaching theory of a definite school subject (literature), so it is easier for the teacher to benifit from it than from the theories of general didactics. ; The essential assignment of literature didactics is the best arrangement of didactic procedure, the best methods of the teaching and learning of literature. Referring to the opinions of H. Muszyński, the authar introduces a fundamental formula of statement according to that scientific branch: W = f (D, S, C), where W - denotes results (aims) of literature teaching, D - didactic activity, S - a specific didactic situation (the conditions of didactic process), C - the length of time of didactic activities.