Akuszerka na ziemiach polskich w świetle przepisów oraz literatury medycznej z końca XVIII i pierwszej połowy XIX wieku = The midwife on Polish territory in the light of the laws and medical literature of the late 18th century and the first half of the 19th century
The end of the 18th century was a crucial period in the history of Polish obstetrics. The medical knowledge was made available also to the women. Especially for them midwifery courses were organised from 1773, during which received theoretical and practical knowledge. The largest centers were located in Kraków, Warsaw, Vilnius, Poznan and at first also in Lviv. They were made in its form as a result of an order of the authorities of Prussia, Austria and Russia, which required that the new schools were established, often with free fee for part of the students. ; These schools were well equipped with medical, obstetric or phantoms, and the practice students held "at the bedside" in the resulting maternity clinics. Activity educated midwives supported by the law, but at the same time impose on them obligations and criminal liability. The rules required of they also baptize the child, before his die. The midwife became an officer of the city or district, she received salary and could not refuse to help anyone. ; Her role during childbirth consisted more on observation and identification of threats than the exercise of medical activities, because they were allowed physician-obstetrician. The midwife had rotate badly laid the baby in the birth canal, take care of the perineum in labor, and calm down the mother. Textbooks describe in detail the tasks midwife during pregnancy, childbirth and soon after him. It should be noted that the process of replacing unqualified women midwives just started, and in the countryside still dominated the first.